Teutonic Mythology
Gods and Goddesses of the Northland

By Viktor Rydberg

IN THREE VOLUMES

NORRŒNA SOCIETY
LONDON – COPENHAGEN – STOCKHOLM – BERLIN – NEW YORK
1907


CONTENTS


Cover Page
Title Page


VOLUME I

PART I — INTRODUCTION

(A) The Ancient Aryans
1. The Words German and Germanic — 1
2. The Aryan Family of Languages — 3
3. Hypothesis of Asiatic Origin of the Aryans — 5
4. Hypothesis of European Origin of the Aryans — 15
5. The Aryan Land of Europe — 20
(B) Ancient Teutondom (Germanien)
6. The Stone Age of Prehistoric Teutondom — 26

PART II — MEDIÆVAL MIGRATION SAGAS

(A) The Learned Saga in Regard to the Emigration From Troy-Asgard
  7. The Saga in Heimskringla and the Prose Edda — 32
  8. The Troy Saga and Prose Edda — 44
  9. Saxo’s Relation to the Story of Troy — 47
10. Older Periods of the Troy Saga — 50
11. Story of the Origin of Trojan Descent of the Franks — 60
12. Odin as Leader of the Trojan Emigration — 67
13. Materials of the Icelandic Troy Saga — 83
14. Result of Foregoing Investigations — 96
(B) Popular Traditions of the Middle Ages
15. The Longobardian Migration Saga — 99
16. Saxon and Swabian Migration Saga — 107
17. The Frankish Migration Saga — 111
18. Migration Saga of the Burgundians — 113
19. Teutonic Emigration Saga — 119

PART III — THE MYTH CONCERNING THE EARLIEST PERIOD
                  AND THE EMIGRATIONS FROM THE NORTH

20. Myths Concerning the Creation of Man — 126
21. Scef, the Original Patriarch — 135
22. Borgar-Skjold, the Second Patriarch — 143
23. Halfdan, the Third Patriarch — 147
24. Halfdan’s Enmity with Orvandel and Svipdag — 151
25. Halfdan’s Identity with Mannus — 153
26. Sacred Runes Learned from Heimdal — 159
27. Sorcery, the Reverse of Sacred Runes — 165
28a. Heimdal and the Sun Goddess — 167
28b. Loke Causes Enmity Between Gods and Creators — 171
29. Halfdan Identical with Helge — 180
30. The End of the Age of Peace — 185
31. Halfdan’s Character. The Weapon-Myth. — 191
32. War with the Heroes from Svarin’s Mound — 194
33. Review of the Svipdag Myth — 200
34. The World-War and its Causes — 204
35. Myth Concerning the Sword Guardian — 213
36. Breach Between Asas Vans. Siege of Asgard — 235
37. Significance of the World-War — 252
38. The War in Midgard. Hadding’s Adventures — 255
39. Position of the Divine Clans to the Warriors — 262
40. Hadding’s Defeat — 268
41. Loke’s Punishment — 273
42. Original Model of the Bravalla Battle — 281
43. The Dieterich Saga — 285

PART IV — THE MYTH IN REGARD TO THE LOWER WORLD

44. Myth in Regard to the Lower World — 306
45. Gudmund, King of the Glittering Plains — 309
46. Ruler of the Lower World — 312
47. Fjallerus and Hadingus in the Low World — 317
48. A Frisian Saga, Adam of Bremen — 319
49. Odainsaker and the Glittering Plains — 321
50. Identification of Odainsaker — 336
51. Gudmund’s Identity with Mimer — 339
52. Mimer’s Grove — 341


VOLUME II

53. Myth in Regard to the Lower World — 353
54. Myth Concerning Mimer’s Grove — 379
55. Mimer’s Grove and Regeneration of the World — 389
56. Gylfaginning’s Cosmography — 395
57. The Word Hel in Linguistic Usage — 406
58. The Word Hel in Vegtamskvida and in Vafthrudnersmal — 410
59. Border Mountain Between Hel and Nifelhel — 414
60. Description of Nifelhel — 426
61. Who the Inhabitants of Hel are — 440
62. The Classes of Beings in Hel — 445
63. The Kingdom of Death — 447
64. Valkyries, Psycho-messengers of Diseases — 457
65. The Way of Those who Fall by the Sword — 462
66. Risting with the Spear-point — 472
67. Loke’s Daughter, Hel — 476
68. Way to Hades Common to the Dead — 482
69. The Doom of the Dead — 485
70. Speech-Runes Ords Tírr Námæli — 490
71. The Looks of the Thingstead — 505
72. The Hades Drink — 514
73. The Hades Horn Embellished with Serpents — 521
74. The Lot of the Blessed — 528
75. Arrival at the Na-gates — 531
76. The Places of Punishment — 534
77. The Hall in Nastrands — 540
78. Loke’s Cave of Punishment — 552
79. The Great World-Mill — 565
80. The World-Mill — 568
81. The World-Mill makes the Constellations Revolve — 579
82. Origin of the Sacred Fire — 586
83. Mundilfore’s Identity with Lodur — 601
84. Nat, Mother of the Gods — 608
85. Narfi, Nat’s Father — 611
86. Giant Clans Descended from Ymer — 624
87. Identity of Mimer and Nidhad — 630
88. Review of Mimer’s Names and Epithets — 641
89. The Mead Myth — 644
90. The Moon and the Mead — 669
91. Myths of the Moon-God — 680
92. The Moon-Dis Nanna — 681
93. Cosmographic Review — 692


VOLUME III

94. Story of the Seven Sleepers — 707
95. The Anthropology of the Mythology — 729

PART V — THE IVALDE RACE

96. Svipdag and Groa — 747
97. Menglad’s Identity with Freyja — 751
98. The Sword of Revenge — 759
99. Orvandel, the Star-Hero — 767
100. Svipdag Identical with Otharus — 770
101. Svipdag in Saxo’s Account of Hotherus — 781
102. Ericus Disertus in Saxo — 793
103. The Svipdag Synonim Eirikr — 803
104. Later Fortunes of the Volund Sword — 808
105. The Svipdag Epithet “Skirnir” — 815
106. Transformation and Death of Svipdag — 819
107. Reminiscences of the Svipdag Myth — 830
108. Orvandel, Egil and Ebbo — 847
109. Frey Fostered in the Home of Orvandel — 865
110. Ivalde, Svipdag’s Grandfather — 870
111. Parallel Myths in Rigveda — 874
112. Judgment Passed on the Ivalde Sons — 884
113. Olvalde and Ivalde Sons Identical — 890
114. A Review of Thorsdrapa — 932
115. Of Volund’s Identity with Thjasse — 952
116. The Worst Deed of Revenge — 956
117. the Guard at Hvergelmer and the Elivagar — 968
118. Slagfin, Egil, and Volund — 971
119. The Niflung Hoard Left by Volund — 975
120. Slagfin-Gjuke a Star-Hero — 981
121. Slagfin’s Appearance in the Moon Myth — 985
122. Review of the Synonyms of Ivalde’s Sons — 991
123. Ivalde — 992

DICTIONARY OF GODS AND GODDESSES — 1013

INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES — 1041


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